participatory action research approaches 

Earth System Governance conference, 24 October 2023

References on various types of PAR approaches: 

1. Transition workshops 

Transition workshops with the X-curve framework, DRIFT, Erasmus University Rotterdam:

Background readings:

2. Participatory Mapping

A library on Participatory and PGIS, called IAPAD: 

  • Repository with many publications about participatory mapping and PGIS, ordered per year, maintained by Giacomo Rambaldi:

3. Citizen Science

A list with different types of Participatory Action Research approaches would be inexhaustible. An emerging field in scientific research in practicing an inclusive approach, brought together under the umbrella term 'citizen science':


4. Policy Gaming

Scientific communities and academic conferences:

Game simulation books and journals: 

A workshop on games, by Dennis Meadows: 

Theory and practice of games. Workshop 11 May 2015 at Teachers Competence Development Training in ESD: Steps to a Sustainable Future. 

Workshop arranged by the Baltic University Programme, Uppsala University.

Further down below, topic 5, two more references to effect studies of gaming 

5. Effect studies on gaming

1. Example effect study based on self reports on the Enroads climate interactive policy game.  Results:

The game:….

  • increases knowledge about the scale of emissions reductions and policies and actions needed to address climate change.
  • personal and emotional engagement with climate change grew.
  • participants state participating in Enroads left them feeling empowered to make a positive difference in addressing the climate challenge

Source: Rooney-Varga, J. N., Kapmeier, F., Sterman, J. D., Jones, A. P., Putko, M., & Rath, K. (2020). The Climate Action Simulation. Simulation & Gaming, 51(2), 114-140.

2. Example effect study on gaming for transforming and reengineering government:

  • “Though a research agenda was established no real substantial research investments were conducted to address the main research question on how to affect behavioral change via policy games.”

Source: Gaming and simulation for transforming and reengineering government: Towards a research agenda in: M. Janssen and B. Klievink in: Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy 2010. Vol. 4 Issue 2 Pages 132-137.

3. Evaluating the effect of games focusing on reflection and learning (online first): 

A paper analyzing the effects of a reflection assignment as part of debriefing with specific methodologies (qualitative and quantitative) in five simulation game-based seminars:
Alf, T., de Wijse, M., & Trautwein, F. (2023). The Role of Reflection in Learning with Simulation Games – A Multi-Method Quasi Experimental Research. Simulation & Gaming, 0(0).

4. PhD research into the effects of policy games, forthcoming: 

  • De Wijse-van Heeswijk, Rouwette and Meijerink (2023 in Press)The learning effects of first, second and third order interventions in a rule based and open policy SG, Instructional Science Journal.
  • De Wijse-van Heeswijk, Rouwette E. and Meijerink S. (2023) QCA study into the conditions that enable learning from SGs in which of 25 case studies 12 policy games are studied in their context.
  • De Wijse-van Heeswijk, Rouwette E. and Meijerink S. (2024 forthcoming) Process tracing study into the mechanism that enable learning in policy SGs.